Study Guide

Contents:

Preface:

Psalms
Your Guide and Fellow Travelers

Places:

Beersheba
Beit She’an
Bethany
Beth-Horon
Bethsaida
Beth Shemesh
Caesarea
Caesarea Philippi
Capernaum
Cardo, The
Chorazin
Church of the Holy Sepulcher
City of David
David’s Citadel / Austrian Hospice
Davidson Center
Dead Sea
Elah Valley
En Gedi
Gethsemane
Gezer
Hazor
Herod the Great
Herodium
Hezekiah’s Tunnel
Hippus
Jericho
Jerusalem
Jezreel
Jordan River Baptismal
Lachish
Magdala
Masada
Megiddo
Nazareth
Nebi Samwil
Nof Ginosar
Mount Arbel
Mount of Beatitudes
Mount Gerizim
Mount of Olives
Pools of Bethesda
Qumran
Sepphoris
Shiloh
Tel Dan
Temple Mount
Tiberias
Upper Room, The (Cenacle)
Western Wall

Maps/illustrations:

Temple Mount Wall
Israel Elevation
Jerusalem over the centuries
Herod’s Temple
Caesarea
Masada
Herodium
Sennacherib’s Lachish Relief
Sea of Galilee
Map of Galilee
Jerusalem Topography
Map of Israel

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Psalms 48:1, 48:9–14

Great is the Lord, and most wor­thy of praise,
in the city of our God, his holy moun­tain.

With­in your tem­ple, O God,
we med­i­tate on your unfail­ing love.
Like your name, O God,
your praise reach­es to the ends of the earth;
your right hand is filled with right­eous­ness.
Mount Zion rejoic­es,
the vil­lages of Judah are glad
because of your judg­ments.
Walk about Zion, go around her,
count her tow­ers,
con­sid­er well her ram­parts,
view her citadels,
that you may tell of them
to the next gen­er­a­tion.
For this God is our God for ever and ever;
he will be our guide even to the end.

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Your Guide:

Dr. Chris McK­in­ny
Academia.edu: https://biu.academia.edu/ChrisMcKinny
Cur­ricu­lum Vitae: https://biu.academia.edu/ChrisMcKinny/CurriculumVitae

Your Fellow Travelers:

Dave & Eliza Bai­ley
Rod & Gayle Chaney with Olivia & Cameron
Lee & Tere­sa Fowler
Rebec­ca Leonard
James & Wendy Weaks with Ryan & Han­nah
Blake Weaks
Kim Wilkin­son
Allen Wolf

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Mount Arbel

Mount Arbel is one of those places nev­er men­tioned in the Bible. Its pres­ence was so obvi­ous, it was assumed. From this spot you can see where the major­i­ty of the events men­tioned in the Gospels took place. Jesus would have passed its enor­mous cliffs many times dur­ing His time in Galilee.

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Beersheba

Mean­ing “well of the oath” or “well of sev­en.” ”From Dan to Beer­she­ba” (a dis­tance of 144 miles) was a famil­iar say­ing in the Old Tes­ta­ment. It was used to rep­re­sent the extent of the nation­al ter­ri­to­ry at the time. Dan was the north­ern­most city, Beer­she­ba was the south­ern­most city. The area of Beer­she­ba is first men­tioned in the Bible as the place where Hagar went after she was sent away from Abra­ham because of fam­i­ly con­flicts with Abraham’s wife Sarah.

Oth­er notable events of Beer­she­ba: Jacob had his Stair­way To Heav­en dream in the area, and lat­er God spoke to Jacob there when the Israelites were on their way to Egypt, where they would remain for over 400 years in even­tu­al slav­ery before the Exo­dus (Gen­e­sis 46:1). The prophet Eli­jah sought refuge there after wicked Jeze­bel ordered him killed (1 Kings 19:3). Samuel’s two cor­rupt sons who served as judges there caused the Israelites to demand their first king which they got in Saul (1 Samuel 8:1–3, 9:1–2,17).

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Bethany*

The home of the sib­lings Mary, Martha, and Lazarus, as well as that of Simon the Lep­er. Jesus is report­ed to have lodged there after his entry into Jerusalem, and it could be from Bethany that he part­ed from his dis­ci­ples at the Ascen­sion. The vil­lage of Bethany is ref­er­enced in rela­tion to five inci­dents in the New Tes­ta­ment, in which the word Bethany appears 11 times:

  • The rais­ing of Lazarus from the dead — John 11:1–46
  • The entry of Jesus into Jerusalem on Palm Sun­day, which Jesus begins near Bethany — Mark 11:1 and Luke 19:29
  • The lodg­ing of Jesus in Bethany dur­ing the fol­low­ing week — Matthew 21:17 and Mark 11:11–12
  • In the house of Simon the Lep­er, at which Mary anoints Jesus — Matthew 26:6–13, Mark 14:3–9, and John 12:1–8
  • Before the Ascen­sion of Jesus into heav­en — Luke 24:50

In Luke 10:38–42, a vis­it of Jesus to the home of Mary and Martha is described, but the vil­lage of Bethany is not named.

(*Not to be con­fused with Bethany beyond the Jor­dan.)

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Mount of Beatitudes

The Mount of Beat­i­tudes, believed to be the set­ting for Jesus’ Ser­mon on the Mount. It over­looks the north­west­ern shore of the Sea of Galilee. It offers an enchant­i­ng vis­ta of the north­ern part of the lake and across to the cliffs of the Golan Heights. Just below is Sower’s Cove, where it is believed Jesus taught the Para­ble of the Sow­er (Mark 4:1–9) from a boat moored in the bay. The Church of the Beat­i­tudes, built here, has eight sides which rep­re­sent the eight beat­i­tudes shown in Lat­in in the upper win­dows.

Matthew 5: Now when Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on a moun­tain­side and sat down. His dis­ci­ples came to him, and he began to teach them. He said:

Blessed are the poor in spir­it, for theirs is the king­dom of heav­en. Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be com­fort­ed. Blessed are the meek, for they will inher­it the earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for right­eous­ness, for they will be filled. Blessed are the mer­ci­ful, for they will be shown mer­cy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. Blessed are the peace­mak­ers, for they will be called chil­dren of God. Blessed are those who are per­se­cut­ed because of right­eous­ness, for theirs is the king­dom of heav­en.”

Blessed are you when peo­ple insult you, per­se­cute you and false­ly say all kinds of evil again­st you because of me. Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heav­en, for in the same way they per­se­cut­ed the prophets who were before you.”

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Pools of Bethesda

John 5 describes a pool near the Sheep Gate, which is sur­round­ed by five cov­ered colon­nades. Until the 19th cen­tu­ry, there was no evi­dence out­side of John’s Gospel for the exis­tence of this pool; there­fore, schol­ars argued that the gospel was writ­ten lat­er, prob­a­bly by some­one with­out first-hand knowl­edge of the city of Jerusalem, and that the “pool” had only a metaphor­i­cal, rather than a his­tor­i­cal sig­nif­i­cance. In the 19th cen­tu­ry, archae­ol­o­gists dis­cov­ered the remains of a pool fit­ting the descrip­tion in John’s Gospel.

JOHN 5: Some time lat­er, Jesus went up to Jerusalem for one of the Jew­ish fes­ti­vals. Now there is in Jerusalem near the Sheep Gate a pool, which in Ara­maic is called Bethesda[a] and which is sur­round­ed by five cov­ered colon­nades. Here a great num­ber of dis­abled peo­ple used to lie—the blind, the lame, the par­a­lyzed.  One who was there had been an invalid for thir­ty-eight years.  When Jesus saw him lying there and learned that he had been in this con­di­tion for a long time, he asked him, “Do you want to get well?”

Sir,” the invalid replied, “I have no one to help me into the pool when the water is stirred. While I am try­ing to get in, some­one else goes down ahead of me.” Then Jesus said to him, “Get up! Pick up your mat and walk.” At once the man was cured; he picked up his mat and walked.

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Bethsaida

Mean­ing “house of the hunt.” Jesus crit­i­cized the Galilean fish­ing vil­lage of Beth­saida for its inhab­i­tants’ lack of faith. In con­trast, at least three of its native sons — Peter, Andrew and Philip — respond­ed to his call and gave up every­thing to fol­low him.

Jesus curs­es Beth­saida: Luke 10:13–14, Matthew 11:20–22

Jesus cures a blind man: Mark 8:22–26

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Beth Shemesh

Mean­ing “house of the sun.” A city in the tribe of Dan (Joshua 21:16 ; 1 Samuel 6:15), on the north bor­der of Judah (Joshua 15:10). It was the scene of an encoun­ter between Jehoash, King of Israel, and Amazi­ah, King of Judah, in which the lat­ter was made pris­on­er (2 Kings 14:11–13). It was after­wards tak­en by the Philisti­nes (2 Chron­i­cles 28:18). It is the mod­ern ruined Ara­bic vil­lage ‘Ain-shems, on the north-west slopes of the moun­tains of Judah, 14 miles west of Jerusalem.

Samson’s proph­e­sied birth was in this area (Judges 13) as was the loca­tion of his buri­al (Judges 16).

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Beth-Horon

Mean­ing “house of the hol­low” or “of the cav­ern.” The name of two towns, Beth-horon the Upper (Joshua 16:5) and Beth-horon the Low­er (Joshua 16:3), said to have been built (1 Chron­i­cles 7:24) by Sheer­ah, the daugh­ter of Beri­ah.  The bor­der line between Ben­jam­in and Ephraim passed by the Beth-horons (Joshua 16:5; Joshua 21:22), the cities belong­ing to the lat­ter tribe and there­fore, lat­er on, to the North­ern King­dom. Solomon “built Beth-horon the upper, and Beth-horon the nether, for­ti­fied cities, with walls, gates, and bars” (2 Chron­i­cles 8:5; 1 Kings 9:17).

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Beit She’an

Exca­va­tions at Beth Shean in the past cen­tu­ry have revealed a 6,000-year his­to­ry of set­tle­ment at the site. Locat­ed near the inter­sec­tion of two well-trav­eled ancient routes, Beth Shean proved to have impor­tant strate­gic val­ue as ear­ly as the fifth mil­len­ni­um B.C.E., when it was first set­tled.

The most famous episode fea­tur­ing Beth Shean in the Bible fol­lows the death of King Saul on Mt. Gilboa: The Philisti­nes came to strip the slain, and they found Saul and his three sons lying on Mt. Gilboa. They cut off his head and stripped him of his armor … They placed his armor in the tem­ple of Ashtaroth, and they impaled his body on the wall of Beth Shean. When the men of Jabesh-Gilead heard about it—what the Philisti­nes had done to Saul—all their stal­wart men set out and marched all night. They removed the bod­ies of Saul and his sons from the wall of Beth Shean and came to Jabesh and burned them there. Then they took the bones and buried them under the tamarisk tree in Jabesh, and they fast­ed for 7 days (1 Samuel 31:8–13; cf. 1 Chron­i­cles 10:8–12).

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Caesarea Philippi

Orig­i­nal­ly known as Bani­as, tin hon­or of the Greek god Pan — a half-man, half-goat deity who was wor­shiped here. East of a large cave are the remains of shri­nes to Pan and inscrip­tions, from the 2nd cen­tu­ry, bear­ing his name. It was near Cae­sarea Philip­pi, a city of Greek-Roman cul­ture known for its wor­ship of for­eign gods, Jesus announced he would estab­lish a church and gave author­i­ty over it to the apos­tle Simon — whom he renamed Peter.

When Christ asked, “Who do peo­ple say that the Son of Man is?” it was Simon Peter who was inspired to answer: “You are the Mes­si­ah, the Son of the liv­ing God.”

In reply, Christ declared: “And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not pre­vail again­st it. I will give you the keys of the king­dom of heav­en, and what­ev­er you bind on earth will be bound in heav­en, and what­ev­er you loose on earth will be loosed in heav­en.” (Matthew 16:13–20)

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Capernaum

Caper­naum was the cen­ter of Jesus’ activ­i­ties in the Galilee and his town dur­ing that time. It was also the home of the apos­tles Peter, James, Andrew and John, and the tax col­lec­tor Matthew. Many famil­iar Gospel events occurred in this vil­lage.

Caper­naum is where Jesus first began to preach after the Temp­ta­tion in the wilder­ness (Mt 1:12–17) and called Levi from his tax-collector’s booth (Mk 2:13–17). It was while teach­ing in this syn­a­gogue that Jesus said, “Who­ev­er eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eter­nal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.” (Jn 6:54)

Caper­naum is where Jesus healed a centurion’s ser­vant with­out even see­ing him (Mt 8:5–13; Lk 7:1–10), Peter’s moth­er-in- law (Mt 8:14–15; Mk 1:29–30); the par­a­lyt­ic who was low­ered tho­rugh the roof (Mk 2:1–12), and many oth­ers who were brought to him (Mt 8:16–17). And it was Caper­naum that Jesus had set out from when he calmed a storm on the Sea of Galilee (Mt 8:23–27).

The “White Syn­a­gogue” appears to have been built around the 4th or 5th cen­tu­ry. There is strong evi­dence that the one under­neath of it may have been the one that Jesus taught in.

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Caesarea

Herod built Cae­sarea into the grandest city oth­er than Jerusalem in Palestine, with a deep sea har­bor, aque­duct, hip­po­drome and mag­nif­i­cent amphithe­ater that remain stand­ing today. He renamed the city Cae­sarea in hon­or of the emper­or. The pop­u­la­tion was half gen­tile and half Jew­ish, often caus­ing dis­putes among the peo­ple. In 6 CE, Cae­sarea became the home of the Roman gov­er­nors (Procu­ra­tors) of Judea. The city remained the cap­i­tal of Roman and Byzan­ti­ne Palestine.

Cae­sarea is an impor­tant site in Chris­tian his­to­ry. It was the place where Pon­tius Pilate gov­erned dur­ing the time of Jesus. This was where Simon Peter con­vert­ed the Roman, Cor­nelius, the first non-Jew to believe in Jesus. Acts 10:1 At Cae­sarea there was a man named Cor­nelius, a cen­tu­ri­on in what was known as the Ital­ian Reg­i­ment. Paul was also impris­oned for two years in Cae­sarea.

Acts 25:4–7 Fes­tus answered, “Paul is being held at Cae­sarea, and I myself am going there soon.  Let some of your lead­ers come with me, and if the man has done any­thing wrong, they can press charges again­st him there.”  After spend­ing eight or ten days with them, Fes­tus went down to Cae­sarea. The next day he con­vened the court and ordered that Paul be brought before him.  When Paul came in, the Jews who had come down from Jerusalem stood around him. They brought many seri­ous charges again­st him, but they could not prove them.

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The Cardo

The Car­do was Jerusalem’s main street 1800 years ago.  It begins at the Dam­as­cus Gate in the north and cross­es the city south­wards until the area of the Zion Gate.  In its day, the Car­do was an excep­tion­al­ly wide colon­nad­ed street run­ning through the heart (or car­do) of the city on a north-south axis, con­nect­ing many of Byzan­ti­ne Jerusalem’s major insti­tu­tions.

The Car­do was com­prised of a cen­tral lane, open to the sky, for the pas­sage of car­riages and ani­mals, flanked on each side by colon­nad­ed cov­ered walk­ways for pedes­tri­ans. The road is paved with stone slabs and is 22.5 meters wide. The Car­do is depict­ed in the Mad­aba Map, part of a floor mosaic dat­ed to the 6th cen­tu­ry AD that was dis­cov­ered in a Byzan­ti­ne church in Mad­aba, Jor­dan. The Mad­aba Map is the old­est sur­viv­ing detailed depic­tion of Jerusalem. A repli­ca of this map is dis­played in the Car­do.

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Chorazin

An ancient vil­lage in north­ern Galilee, two and a half miles from Caper­naum on a hill above the Sea of Galilee.

Matthew 11:20–22 Then Jesus began to denounce the towns in which most of his mir­a­cles had been per­formed, because they did not repent.  “Woe to you, Choraz­in! Woe to you, Beth­saida! For if the mir­a­cles that were per­formed in you had been per­formed in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repent­ed long ago in sack­cloth and ash­es.  But I tell you, it will be more bear­able for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judg­ment than for you.

Luke 10:10–15 But when you enter a town and are not wel­comed, go into its streets and say,  ‘Even the dust of your town we wipe from our feet as a warn­ing to you. Yet be sure of this: The king­dom of God has come near.’  I tell you, it will be more bear­able on that day for Sodom than for that town.  “Woe to you, Choraz­in! Woe to you, Beth­saida! For if the mir­a­cles that were per­formed in you had been per­formed in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repent­ed long ago, sit­ting in sack­cloth and ash­es.  But it will be more bear­able for Tyre and Sidon at the judg­ment than for you.  And you, Caper­naum, will you be lift­ed to the heav­ens? No, you will go down to Hades.

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Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The place where the dark­ness of death was over­whelmed by the Light of Life.” Orig­i­nal­ly built by the moth­er of Con­stan­ti­ne in 330 A.D., the Church of the Holy Sep­ul­cher com­mem­o­rates the hill of cru­ci­fix­ion and the tomb of Christ’s buri­al.  On grounds of tra­di­tion alone, this church is the best can­di­date for the loca­tion of the­se events.  The Gar­den Tomb was not iden­ti­fied as the tomb of Jesus until the 19th cen­tu­ry.  Inside the church is a rocky out­crop­ping which is the tra­di­tion­al place where the cross was placed. Archae­o­log­i­cal exca­va­tions have demon­strat­ed that this site was out­side the city but close to one of its gates and thus would have been a good loca­tion for a cru­ci­fix­ion.

The best piece of evi­dence that the tomb of Jesus was in this area is the fact that oth­er first-cen­tu­ry tombs are still pre­served inside the church.  Called the “Tomb of Joseph of Ari­math­ea,” the­se buri­al shafts are clear­ly from the time of Christ’s death and thus attest to some kind of buri­al ground in the area. Sev­er­al Chris­tian sects con­trol this prop­er­ty. The Greek Ortho­dox, Arme­ni­an Ortho­dox and Roman Catholic, and to a lesser degree the Egyp­tian Copts, Syr­i­acs and Ethiopi­ans. Mean­while, Protes­tants, includ­ing Angli­cans, have no per­ma­nent pres­ence in the Church and they prefer the Gar­den Tomb, as a more evoca­tive site to com­mem­o­rate those events.

The lad­der in the upper right win­dow has been there since at least 1860, a tes­ti­mony to rival­ries between the church’s fac­tions.

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Mount Carmel

Accord­ing to 1 Kings 18 Eli­jah chal­lenges 450 prophets of a par­tic­u­lar Baal to a con­test at the altar on Mount Carmel to deter­mine whose deity was gen­uine­ly in con­trol of the King­dom of Israel. The chal­lenge was to see which deity could light a sac­ri­fice by fire. After the prophets of Baal had failed, Eli­jah had water poured on his sac­ri­fice to sat­u­rate the altar and then he prayed; fire fell and con­sumed the sac­ri­fice, wood, stones, soil, and water which prompt­ed the Israelite wit­ness­es to pro­claim, “The LORD, He is God! The LORD, He is God!”. In the account, Eli­jah announced the end to a long drought; clouds gath­ered, the sky turned black, and it rained heav­i­ly.

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Tel Dan

The north­ern most city of the King­dom of Israel, and belong­ing to the tribe of Dan. Jer­oboam, son of Nebat, divid­ed the King­dom after King Solomon’s death. He estab­lished in Dan a sub­sti­tute wor­ship place for Jerusalem.  This involved erect­ing a gold­en calf and build­ing an altar described in (1 Kings 12: 28–31): “Where­upon the king took coun­sel, and made two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And he set the one in Bethel, and the oth­er put he in Dan. And this thing became a sin: for the peo­ple went to wor­ship before the one, even unto Dan. And he made an house of high places, and made priests of the low­est of the peo­ple, which were not of the sons of Levi.”

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David’s Citadel

Despite being called the Tow­er of David, the citadel has no con­nec­tion to King David. It is a medieval fortress with archi­tec­tural addi­tions from lat­er peri­ods locat­ed near the Jaf­fa Gate. From the heights of the tow­ers of the Citadel one has a breath­tak­ing 360 degree view of Jerusalem: the Old City and the New City, the Four Quar­ters, the new neigh­bor­hoods, the Mount of Olives, Mount Sco­pus, the Judean Desert and the Dead Sea in the dis­tance. The panoram­ic view is the only one of its kind in Jerusalem and lit­er­al­ly allows the view­er to hold the city in the palm of one’s hand.

Austrian Hospice

The Aus­tri­an Hos­pice of the Holy Fam­i­ly in Jerusalem, which opened its doors in 1863, was the first nation­al pil­grims’ guest­house in the Holy Land. As with David’s Citadel, our main inter­est in this site is in the views it affords us of the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Davidson Center

The David­son Cen­ter helps vis­i­tors appre­ci­ate what Jerusalem looked like in the late Sec­ond Tem­ple Peri­od (1st cen­tu­ry) and offers a win­dow into Jerusalem on the eve of its destruc­tion by the Romans in 70 C.E. through a com­bi­na­tion of exhi­bi­tions of arti­facts, illus­tra­tions, inter­ac­tive mul­ti­me­dia.

Fol­low the wood­en steps down to the 1st cen­tu­ry street below.  2,000 years ago this was the busiest street in Jerusalem, lined with shops and so jam packed with peo­ple dur­ing Jew­ish pil­grim­age fes­ti­vals that it was prob­a­bly dif­fi­cult to walk down.

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City of David

The arche­o­log­i­cal explo­ration of the City of David began in the mid­dle of the 19th cen­tu­ry and con­tin­ues to this day. It has fired the imag­i­na­tion of many schol­ars from dif­fer­ent nations and back­grounds who came to exca­vate in Jerusalem. The lat­est exca­va­tions were car­ried out between 1978 and 1985 and there is an ongo­ing process of updat­ing and revis­ing pre­vi­ous inter­pre­ta­tions. 2 Samuel 5:6 The Jebusites said to David, “You will not get in here; even the blind and the lame can ward you off.”

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Dead Sea

Known in the Bible as the “Salt Sea” or the “Sea of the Arabah” its sur­face and shores are 1,412 ft below sea lev­el, Earth’s low­est ele­va­tion on land. It is the deep­est hyper­saline lake in the world at 997 ft. With 34.2% salin­i­ty, it is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean, and one of the world’s salti­est bod­ies of water. This salin­i­ty makes for a harsh envi­ron­ment in which plants and ani­mals can­not flour­ish, hence its name. The Dead Sea is 31 miles long and 9 miles wide at its widest point.

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En Gedi

En Gedi is the largest oasis along the west­ern shore of the Dead Sea. It served as a water source dur­ing bib­li­cal times (Joshua 15:62, I Samuel 24:1–2). The spring begins to flow 656 feet above the Dead Sea. 3000 years ago, En Gedi served as one of the main places of refuge for David as he fled from King Saul. David “dwelt in strong­holds at En Gedi” (1 Samuel 23:29). En Gedi means lit­er­al­ly “the spring of the kid (goat).” Evi­dence exists that young ibex have always lived near the springs of En Gedi. One time when David was flee­ing from King Saul, the pur­suers searched the “Crags of the Ibex” in the vicin­i­ty of En Gedi. In a cave near here, David cut off the cor­ner of Saul’s robe (1 Samuel 24).

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Mount Gerizim

When Jesus was talk­ing to the Samar­i­tan wom­an at Jacob’swell in Sychar (mod­ern Nablus), she said to Him, “Our fathers wor­shiped on this moun­tain” (Jn 4:20). Some think she was refer­ring to Mount Ger­iz­im 1.2 miles to the south­west, as the cen­ter of Samar­i­tan wor­ship since the 5th cen­tu­ry BC.

Deuteron­o­my 11:29 When the Lord your God has brought you into the land you are enter­ing to pos­sess, you are to pro­claim on Mount Ger­iz­im the bless­ings, and on Mount Ebal the curs­es.

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Elah Valley

Best known as the place described in the Bible where the Israelites were encamped when David fought Goliath (1 Samuel 17:2, 19). The Brook Elah is famous for the five stones it con­tribut­ed to the young slinger, David.  Some sur­mise that David chose five stones instead of the one need­ed in case he need­ed to face Goliath’s four broth­ers. You will want to grab a cou­ple of stones from this brook to remind you who fights your bat­tles.

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Gethsemane

Mean­ing “oil press”, it is a gar­den at the foot of the Mount of Olives, where Jesus prayed before his cru­ci­fix­ion. The present Geth­se­mane trees, were not stand­ing at the time of Christ. Jose­phus states that all the trees around Jerusalem were cut down by the Romans for their siege equip­ment in AD 70.

Matthew 26:36–46: Then Jesus went with his dis­ci­ples to a place called Geth­se­mane, and he said to them, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.”  He took Peter and the two sons of Zebe­dee along with him, and he began to be sor­row­ful and trou­bled.  Then he said to them, “My soul is over­whelmed with sor­row to the point of death. Stay here and keep watch with me.”  Going a lit­tle far­ther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, “My Father, if it is pos­si­ble, may this cup be tak­en from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.”  Then he returned to his dis­ci­ples and found them sleep­ing. “Couldn’t you men keep watch with me for one hour?” he asked Peter.  “Watch and pray so that you will not fall into temp­ta­tion. The spir­it is will­ing, but the flesh is weak.”  He went away a sec­ond time and prayed, “My Father, if it is not pos­si­ble for this cup to be tak­en away unless I drink it, may your will be done.”  When he came back, he again found them sleep­ing, because their eyes were heavy.  So he left them and went away once more and prayed the third time, say­ing the same thing.  Then he returned to the dis­ci­ples and said to them, “Are you still sleep­ing and rest­ing? Look, the hour has come, and the Son of Man is deliv­ered into the hands of sin­ners.  Rise! Let us go! Here comes my betray­er!”

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Nof Ginosar

A muse­um with a boat that dates back to Jesus’ day. The boat has been dat­ed to 40 BC (plus or minus 80 years) based on radio­car­bon dat­ing, and 50 BC to AD 50 based on pot­tery (includ­ing a cook­ing pot and lamp) and nails found in the boat, as well as hull con­struc­tion tech­niques. The evi­dence of repeat­ed repairs shows the boat was used for sev­er­al decades, per­haps near­ly a cen­tu­ry. When its fish­er­men own­ers thought it was beyond repair, they removed all use­ful wood­en parts and the hull even­tu­al­ly sank to the bot­tom of the lake. There it was cov­ered with mud which pre­vent­ed bac­te­ri­al decom­po­si­tion.

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Hazor

Known in Joshua’s day as “the head of all those king­doms,” the tell of Hazor is today the largest in Israel at 200 acres. Accord­ing to the Bible, Jabin the King of Hazor head­ed an alliance of Canaan­ite cities again­st the advanc­ing Israelites, led by Joshua. The Israelites won the bat­tle and burned and rav­aged the city (Josh 11:1–12).

At the time of David and Solomon, Hazor was a far richer than Jerusalem and rough­ly ten times larg­er. Hazor had two dis­tinct sec­tions: the upper city, where pub­lic build­ings were sit­u­at­ed, and the low­er city, a for­ti­fied enclo­sure with mas­sive for­ti­fi­ca­tions.

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Gezer

Sit­u­at­ed near the Inter­na­tion­al Coastal High­way and guard­ing the pri­ma­ry route into the Israelite hill coun­try, Gez­er was one of the most strate­gic cities in the Canaan­ite and Israelite peri­ods.  Gez­er is a promi­nent 33-acre site that over­looked the Aijalon Val­ley and the road lead­ing through it to Jerusalem. Joshua 10:33 — Mean­while, Horam king of Gez­er had come up to help Lachish, but Joshua defeat­ed him and his army—until no sur­vivors were left.

Joshua 16:10- They did not dis­lodge the Canaan­ites liv­ing in Gez­er; to this day the Canaan­ites live among the peo­ple of Ephraim but are required to do forced labor.

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Herod The Great

Born 73 BC died 4 AD. He was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Hero­di­an king­dom. The his­to­ry of his lega­cy has polar­ized opin­ion, as he is known for his colos­sal build­ing projects through­out Judea, includ­ing his expan­sion of the Sec­ond Tem­ple in Jerusalem (Herod’s Tem­ple), the con­struc­tion of the port at Cae­sarea Mar­iti­ma, the fortress at Masada and Herodi­um. Herod appears in the Gospel accord­ing to Matthew (2:1–23), which describes an event known as the Mas­sacre of the Inno­cents.

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Herodium

Herodi­um is 3 miles south­east of Beth­le­hem and 8 miles south of Jerusalem. A fortress for Herod to quick­ly flee to from Jerusalem and a lux­u­ri­ous palace for his enjoy­ment.  He chose to be buried here and the moun­tain is the shape of a tumu­lus. Herod’s tomb was dis­cov­ered by archae­ol­o­gist Ehud Net­zer in 2007. The find­ings include coffins of Herod’s fam­i­ly, a the­ater with a VIP room, and two coffins con­tain­ing the remains of most like­ly Herod’s wife and his son’s wife Archelaus. New find­ings sup­port the idea that the grave dis­cov­ered belongs to Herod the Great. A the­ater that could hold an audi­ence of 750 was dis­cov­ered not far from the mau­soleum. In front of the seat­ing area is a large room for VIPs, from which the king and his close friends would watch the shows.

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Hezekiah’s Tunnel

King Hezeki­ah pre­pared Jerusalem for an impend­ing siege by the Assyr­i­ans, by “block­ing the source of the waters of the upper Gihon, and lead­ing them straight down on the west to the City of David” (2 Chron­i­cles 32). In 1838 Amer­i­can bib­li­cal schol­ar Edward Robin­son dis­cov­ered Hezekiah’s Tun­nel. The 1,750 feet tun­nel dug 131 feet below ground through solid rock was far more spec­tac­u­lar than any­one could have imag­ined. It has a steady grade slope of 0.6% to keep the water flow­ing. Warren’s Shaft is in this area as well.

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Hippus

Ruins of an ancient city at the sum­mit of a steep hill on the east­ern side of the Sea of Galilee over­look­ing its shores. Its begin­nings was as a large Hel­lenis­tic city called Hip­pos (horse) in Greek.
Hip­pus was one of the ten cities in this region that formed the alliance known as the Decapolis. This may have been the city Jesus used as an illus­tra­tion when he said in Matthew 5:14–16: “You are the light of the world. A town built on a hill can­not be hid­den.  Nei­ther do peo­ple light a lamp and put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light to every­one in the house. In the same way, let your light shine before oth­ers, that they may see your good deeds and glo­ri­fy your Father in heav­en.”

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Jericho

Jeri­cho — “City of palms” — is believed to be one of the old­est cities in the world. It was the first city cap­tured by the Israelites upon enter­ing the land of Canaan fol­low­ing their 40 years of wan­der­ing in the desert after their exo­dus from Egypt. The Gospels state that Jesus of Nazareth passed through Jeri­cho where he healed one (Mark 10:46, Luke 18:35) or two (Matthew 20:29) blind beg­gars, and inspired a local chief tax-col­lec­tor named Zac­cha­eus to repent of his dis­hon­est prac­tices (Luke 19:1–10). The road between Jerusalem and Jeri­cho is the set­ting for the Para­ble of the Good
Samar­i­tan. Herod the Great’s win­ter palace is locat­ed in Jeri­cho. He died here and lat­er was tak­en to his Herodi­um palace for buri­al.

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Jerusalem

King David con­quered the city from the Jebusites and estab­lished it as the cap­i­tal of the Unit­ed King­dom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, com­mis­sioned the build­ing of the First Tem­ple. Jerusalem was on the bor­der of the two tribes. Ben­jam­in (Rachel) was promised God’s Pres­ence (Deut. 33:12 About Ben­jam­in he said: “Let the beloved of the LORD rest secure in him, for he shields him all day long, and the one the LORD loves rests between his shoul­ders.”) AND Judah (Leah) wa promised author­i­ty. (Gen 49:10 The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until he to whom it belongs shall come and the obe­di­ence of the nations shall be his.) John Light­foot states that accord­ing to Jew­ish tra­di­tion the altars and sanc­tu­ary were in Ben­jam­in, while the courts of the tem­ple were in Judah. Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and cap­tured and recap­tured 44 times.

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Jezreel

Accord­ing to the Book of Kings, the roy­al palace of King Ahab in Jezreel was adja­cent to the vine­yard of Naboth. Pri­or to the divi­sion of the Unit­ed King­dom of Israel, the city was also the home­town of Ahi­noam, first wife of King David. In the Bible, the city of Jezreel has a long, vio­lent his­to­ry. The wife of King Ahab, Jeze­bel, died when she was thrown from a win­dow of Jezreel’s palace, and her body was eat­en by dogs (2 Kings 9:30–35). Naboth was mur­dered in Jezreel when he refused to give King Ahab his vine­yard (1 Kings 21:1–23). King Ahab’s sons were behead­ed and their heads piled at the gates of Jezreel (2 Kings 10:1–11). Jezreel was also the scene of many bib­li­cal bat­tles: Deborah’s vic­to­ry over Sis­era (Judges 4); the Israelites’ vic­to­ry over the
Mid­i­an­ites and the Amalekites (Judges 6—8); Saul and Jonathan’s defeat at the hand of the Philisti­nes (1 Samuel 31); Egypt’s vic­to­ry over King Josi­ah (2 Kings 23:29).

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Jordan River Baptismal

All four gospels recall the sto­ry of Jesus com­ing to the Jor­dan to be bap­tized by John. The syn­op­tics record that when Jesus was bap­tized, the Holy Spir­it descend­ed upon him like a dove, and a voice came from heav­en, say­ing “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” (Mt 3:13–17; cf. Mk 1:9–11; Luke 3:21–22). The Gospel of John tells us where the scene occurred: “The­se things took place in Bethany across the Jor­dan, where John was bap­tiz­ing” (Jn 1:28). Jesus also stayed in the same “Bethany beyond the Jor­dan” (don’t con­fuse with Bethany on the Mt. of Olives), when he fled per­se­cu­tion in Jerusalem (Jn 10:40). What is the sym­bol­ism of Jesus being bap­tized at this spot? This is the same place, where the Israelites crossed the Jor­dan when they entered the land of Canaan. As the priests car­ry­ing the Ark of the Covenant stepped into the river, the waters of the Jor­dan were cut off and the Israelites could cross it on dry ground (Joshua 3:14–17). Lat­er, the prophet Eli­jah crossed the Jor­dan on dry ground with Elisha just before he was tak­en up to heav­en on a char­i­ot of fire (2 Ki 2:8) as a sign that his prophet­ic min­istry was over. Elisha then returned to Israel in the same way, cross­ing the Jor­dan on dry ground to inau­gu­rate his own prophet­ic min­istry (2 Ki 2:14). The fact that Jesus also began his min­istry there, by “cross­ing the Jor­dan,” por­trays him as a “new Joshua.”

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Lachish

Lachish was the 2nd most impor­tant for­ti­fied city in the king­dom of Judah, after Jerusalem. It guard­ed a main road from Egypt to Jerusalem. Lachish is referred in many Bib­li­cal accounts, includ­ing the Assyr­i­an and Baby­lo­ni­an cam­paigns when Lachish was a key city for the con­quest of the Judahite King­dom. The Israelites cap­tured and destroyed Lachish for join­ing the league again­st the Gibeonites (Joshua 10:31–33). The ter­ri­to­ry was lat­er assigned to the tribe of Judah (15:39) and became part of the King­dom of Israel. The Lachish reliefs are a set of Assyr­i­an palace reliefs nar­rat­ing the sto­ry of the Assyr­i­an vic­to­ry over the king­dom of Judah dur­ing the siege of Lachish in 701 BCE. Carved between 700–681 BCE, as a dec­o­ra­tion of the South-West Palace of Sen­nacherib in Nin­eveh (in mod­ern Iraq).

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Magdala

Both Matthew and Mark say Jesus preached in syn­a­gogues “through­out Galilee”, and Mag­dala was only 6.2 miles from Caper­naum, where he based his min­istry. So it’s rea­son­able to believe that Jesus taught in Magdala’s syn­a­gogue. Magdala’s fame down the cen­turies rest­ed on one notable per­son, Mary Mag­dalene. After Jesus died she was one of the wom­en who took spices for anoint­ing to the tomb. They found the tomb emp­ty, but “two men in daz­zling clothes” gave them the news that Jesus had risen. (Luke 24:1–12)

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Masada

Accord­ing to Jose­phus, between 37 and 31 BCE, Herod the Great built a large fortress as a refuge for him­self in the event of a revolt, and erect­ed two palaces. In 73 C.E., after the Great Revolt had been sub­dued, the Romans decid­ed to put an end to the last pock­et of resis­tance: the free­dom fight­ers of Masada. For 3 years, the Zealots had man­aged to keep the Romans off the moun­tain. Near­ly 10,000 troops tried starv­ing the Jew­ish rebels and when that didn’t work they uti­lized every con­ceiv­able kind of siege weapon in an effort to break through the impreg­nable fortress. Final­ly, they breached the wall by build­ing an earth­en ramp embank­ment, which was appar­ent­ly erect­ed by thou­sands of Jew­ish slaves whom the Romans brought to Masada espe­cial­ly for this pur­pose. They were sure that the Zealots wouldn’t shoot at Jews and they were right. When the end was near, Zealot lead­er Elazar Ben-Yair called his peo­ple – 967 men, wom­en, and chil­dren – togeth­er. He remind­ed them that they had long ago resolved to serve only God, and not the Romans nor any oth­er mas­ter. He called upon them to die as free men and wom­en, rather than face cap­ture and slav­ery by the pagan con­querors. His mov­ing speech per­suad­ed the Zealots to com­mit sui­cide before the expect­ed dawn attack by the Romans. Lots were drawn and 10 men were cho­sen as exe­cu­tion­ers: the rest lay side by side and bared their necks. At the end, one Zealot killed the oth­er nine and then took his own life. It was the first day of Passover, the hol­i­day in which the Jews cel­e­brate their free­dom from bondage.

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Megiddo

Megid­do is known for its his­tor­i­cal, geo­graph­i­cal, and the­o­log­i­cal impor­tance, espe­cial­ly under its Greek name Armaged­don. Megid­do is first men­tioned in the Bible in Joshua 12:21. At the time the city was inhab­it­ed by Canaan­ites. The city lat­er came under the con­trol of King Solomon, though there is some con­tro­ver­sy as to how much of a con­nec­tion he had to the remains that have been dis­cov­ered. The Israelite con­nec­tion to the city end­ed around 732 B.C.E. when the Assyr­i­ans con­quered Palestine. You’ll see the char­i­ot sta­bles, called Solomon’s Sta­bles even though we now know they were built by King Ahab dur­ing the 9th cen­tu­ry B.C.E. Here, an inge­nious sys­tem was devised to col­lect water safe­ly. A ver­ti­cal shaft was dug with­in the city to the depth of the near­by spring and then a tun­nel was built con­nect­ing to the water source. We will walk down 183 steps into the shaft, which is 120 feet deep, and then out the tun­nel, anoth­er 215 feet.

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Nazareth

Known as the child­hood home of Jesus, and as such is a cen­ter of Chris­tian pil­grim­age, with many shri­nes com­mem­o­rat­ing bib­li­cal events. In Luke’s Gospel, Nazareth is first described as ‘a city of Galilee’ and home of Mary (Luke 1:26). Fol­low­ing the birth and ear­ly epipha­nial events of chap­ter 2 of Luke’s Gospel, Mary, Joseph and Jesus “returned to Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth.” Jesus spent his boy­hood years in Nazareth before begin­ning his min­istry when he was about 30. After mov­ing to Caper­naum, Jesus returned to teach in the syn­a­gogue of Nazareth twice more, but was reject­ed both times. The Basil­i­ca of the Annun­ci­a­tion is locat­ed here with its beau­ti­ful art from around the world.

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Nebi Samwill

Nebi Samwill is locat­ed on a hill, some 3.1 miles north of Jerusalem. The hill pro­vides a good view of Jerusalem and con­trols the roads lead­ing to the city from the north: the road from the Coastal Plain in the west and that from Samaria to the north of Jerusalem. It is the tra­di­tion­al buri­al site of the bib­li­cal Hebrew prophet Samuel. From this van­tage point — rough­ly half of the geog­ra­phy as rep­re­sent­ed in the books of Joshua, Judges, 1–2 Samuel, and 1–2 Kings can be observed.

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Mount of Olives

It is named for the olive groves that once cov­ered its slopes. The Mount has been used as a Jew­ish ceme­tery for over 3,000 years and holds approx­i­mate­ly 150,000 graves, mak­ing it cen­tral in the tra­di­tion of Jew­ish ceme­ter­ies. Fre­quent­ly men­tioned in the New Tes­ta­ment (Matthew 21:1; 26:30.) as part of the route from Jerusalem to Bethany and the place where Jesus stood when he wept over Jerusalem. Jesus is said to have spent time on the mount, teach­ing and proph­esy­ing to his dis­ci­ples (Matthew 24–25), includ­ing the Olivet dis­course, return­ing after each day to rest (Luke 21:37, and John 8:1), and also com­ing there on the night of his betray­al (Matthew 26:39). At the foot of the Mount of Olives lies the Gar­den of Geth­se­mane. The New Tes­ta­ment tells how Jesus and his dis­ci­ples sang togeth­er – “When they had sung the hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives” Matthew 26:30. Jesus ascend­ed to heav­en from the Mount of Olives accord­ing to Acts 1:9–12.

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Qumran

Best known as the set­tle­ment near­est to the Qum­ran Caves where the Dead Sea Scrolls were dis­cov­ered. In 1947 two Bedouin shep­herds acci­den­tal­ly came across a clay jar in a cave near Khir­bet Qum­ran that con­tained sev­en parch­ment scrolls. The scrolls came into the hands of deal­ers in antiq­ui­ties who offered them to schol­ars. The news of the dis­cov­ery of the first scrolls aroused intense inter­est through­out the world and con­tro­ver­sy, espe­cial­ly with regard to their dat­ing. The largest man­u­script (the Isa­iah Scroll in Hebrew, 23 ft. long) was author­i­ta­tive­ly dat­ed around 100 BCE. In all, over 100 copies of the books of the Hebrew Bible were dis­cov­ered, most of which sur­vived only as frag­ments. Only the Book of Ester is not rep­re­sent­ed. The com­mu­ni­ty to which the Dead Sea Scrolls appar­ent­ly belonged occu­pied Qum­ran around 130 BCE to 70 CE. The sect was an extrem­ist off­shoot of the Jew­ish apoc­a­lyp­tic move­ment, whose basic doc­trine was the expec­ta­tion of the soon end of days.

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Sepphoris

Sep­pho­ris rose to promi­nence dur­ing the cen­tu­ry before Christ because it over­looked two major high­ways. The Hebrew name is Zip­pori because it sits on a hill­top like a bird (zip­por). Accord­ing to Jose­phus, Herod Antipas made it “the orna­ment of Galilee”, a term also imply­ing the mil­i­tary con­no­ta­tion of an impreg­nable city. After the destruc­tion of Jerusalem in AD 70, Sep­pho­ris became a cen­ter of Jew­ish learn­ing and seat of the San­hedrin supre­me court. The Mish­nah, the first author­i­ta­tive col­lec­tion of Jew­ish oral law, was com­piled here. You will see many mul­ti-col­ored mosaic floors at this site.

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Shiloh

Shiloh was the major Israelite wor­ship cen­tre before the first Tem­ple was built in Jerusalem. All of Israel assem­bled togeth­er at Shiloh and set up the tent (or taber­na­cle) of the con­gre­ga­tion there (Joshua 18:1) Accord­ing to I Samuel 1–3, the sanc­tu­ary at Shiloh was admin­is­tered by the Aaronite high priest Eli and his two sons, Hoph­ni and Phineas. The young Samuel was ded­i­cat­ed by his moth­er Han­nah there, to be raised at the shrine by the high priest. His own prophet­ic min­istry is pre­sent­ed as hav­ing begun here. It was under Eli and his sons that the Ark was lost to Israel in a bat­tle with the Philisti­nes at Aphek. Dur­ing the prophet­ic min­istry of Jere­mi­ah (7:12–15; 26:5–9) over three hun­dred years lat­er, Shiloh had been reduced to ruins.

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Temple Mount

The Tem­ple Mount is the holi­est site in Judaism, which regards it as the place where God’s divine pres­ence is man­i­fest­ed more than in any oth­er place. Jew­ish tra­di­tion main­tains it is here a Third and final Tem­ple will also be built. Since the 1st cen­tu­ry CE, the site has been asso­ci­at­ed in Judaism with Mt Mori­ah, the loca­tion of Abraham’s bind­ing of Isaac. Accord­ing to Scrip­ture, the First Tem­ple was built by King Solomon in 966 BCE and destroyed by the Baby­lo­ni­ans in 586 BCE. The Sec­ond Tem­ple was con­struct­ed under the aus­pices of Zerub­ba­bel in 516 BCE and destroyed by the Roman Empire in 70 CE. The Al Aqsa Mosque rests on the far south­ern side of the Mount, fac­ing Mec­ca. The Dome of the Rock, com­plet­ed in 691 CE, cur­rent­ly sits in the mid­dle, occu­py­ing or close to the area where the Holy Tem­ple pre­vi­ous­ly stood. In light of the dual claims of both Judaism and Islam, it is one of the most con­test­ed reli­gious sites in the world.

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Tiberias

An Israeli city on the west­ern shore of the Sea of Galilee. Estab­lished around 20 CE, it was named in hon­or of the 2nd Emper­or of the Roman Empire Tiberius. There is no record of Jesus vis­it­ing this city.

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The Upper Room (Cenacle)

The site of the Last Sup­per is not known and the Gospel accounts provide few clues. It can­not be the present room, which was built in the 12th cen­tu­ry. How­ev­er, it is pos­si­ble it stands over or near the orig­i­nal site of the Last Sup­per and Pen­te­cost. Beneath the floor of the build­ing are Byzan­ti­ne and Roman pave­ments and the foun­da­tions go back to at least the 2nd cen­tu­ry AD. It is pos­si­ble that the “lit­tle church of God” that exist­ed on Mount Zion in 130 AD (men­tioned by Epipha­nius of Salamis) was on this site. Dan­ger and per­se­cu­tions would have exclud­ed Chris­tian inven­tion of a new holy place in the 2nd cen­tu­ry, so if an active church exist­ed in 130 it must have already been impor­tant for some time — per­haps because the upper room was near­by. In those times this was an afflu­ent area of the city and a wealthy Chris­tian may have opened his home for use as a church. The room was trans­formed into a mosque by the Ottomans in 1524, who were less con­cerned with the site’s Chris­tian tra­di­tions than with the Tomb of King David on the lev­el below.

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Western Wall

The term West­ern Wall is most­ly used in a nar­row sense for the sec­tion tra­di­tion­al­ly used by Jews for prayer, and it has also been called the “Wail­ing Wall”, refer­ring to the prac­tice of Jews weep­ing at the site over the destruc­tion of the Tem­ples. It is con­sid­ered holy due to its con­nec­tion to the Tem­ple Mount. Of the four retain­ing walls, the west­ern one is con­sid­ered to be clos­est to the for­mer Tem­ple, mak­ing it the most sacred site rec­og­nized by Judaism out­side the Tem­ple Mount. Just over half the wall’s total height, includ­ing its 17 cours­es locat­ed below street lev­el, dates from the end of the Sec­ond Tem­ple peri­od, and is com­mon­ly believed to have been built around 19 BCE by Herod the Great, but was not fin­ished by the time Herod died in 4 BCE.

At the West­ern Wall Plaza, the total height of the Wall from its foun­da­tion is esti­mat­ed at 105 feet (32 m), with the exposed sec­tion stand­ing approx­i­mate­ly 62 feet (19 m) high. The Wall con­sists of 45 stone cours­es, 28 of them above ground and 17 under­ground. This sec­tion of wall is built from enor­mous lime­stone blocks most weigh­ing between 2 and 8 tons each, but oth­ers weigh even more, with one extra­or­di­nary stone locat­ed slight­ly north of Wilson’s Arch mea­sur­ing 43 ft and weigh­ing approx­i­mate­ly 570 tons. In a broad­er sense, “West­ern Wall” can refer to the entire 1,601 ft. retain­ing wall on the west­ern side of the Tem­ple Mount. The clas­sic por­tion now faces a large plaza in the Jew­ish Quar­ter, near the south­west­ern cor­ner of the Tem­ple Mount, while the rest of the wall is con­cealed behind struc­tures in the Mus­lim Quar­ter.

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Maps and Illustrations:

Temple Mount Wall:

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Israel Elevation:

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Jerusalem over the centuries:

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Herod’s Temple:

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Caesarea:

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Masada:

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Herodium:

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Sennacherib’s Lachish Relief:

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Sea of Galilee:

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Map of Galilee:

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Jerusalem Topography:

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Map of Israel (At the Time of Christ):

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